Future Extreme Rainfall IDF Values in Canada Include Decreasing Intensities for Some Emissions Scenarios and Regions

 A research paper Assessment of non-stationary IDF curves under a changing climate: Case study of different climatic zones in Canada in the August 2021 Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies by Silva et al. projected future IDF curves in several regions of Canada under various emissions scenarios (link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214581821000999)A previous post discussed historical annual maximum rainfall at climate stations with long-term records and noted stationary values for several stations and rainfall durations (i.e., no change in annual extreme rainfall observations) - see post: https://www.cityfloodmap.com/2021/12/has-extreme-rainfall-become-more-severe.html.

The paper presents changes in typical design intensities for:

i) 120-minute (2-hour) 5-year return period values (e.g., along with intensities for shorter durations, these data are used to design storm sewers in many jurisdictions), and

ii) 1440-minute (24-hour) 100-year return period values (e.g., used to design stormwater detention facilities, or used to derive design hyetographs for floodplain mapping in some watersheds and for RDII analysis in some wastewater collection networks prone to wet weather impacts, etc.).

Future projections are made for the period 2020-2100. The main paper presents percentage changes for the RCP8.5 emissions scenario as follows:



The charts on the above left show changes for stationary distributions, and Hamilton (HAM) and London (LON) columns are highlighted. Those stations were shown to have stationary annual maximum extreme rainfall in the paper, as shared in the previous post. The London and Hamilton 100-year rainfall intensities increase from 4 to 13 percent under the RCP 8.5 emissions scenario (stationary table on the bottom left). 

Under the RCP8.5 scenario the return period of today's 100-year 24-hour becomes smaller, meaning that intensity can occur more frequently than the 1% chance per year today. Today's 5-year 2-hour intensities become more frequent as well. The paper shows these projected intensities: 


So a 100-year return period 24-hour (1440 minute) intensity becomes a 73.5 year return period intensity or a 18.5 year return period intensity in Hamilton and London, Ontario, respectively.

Supplemental material shows that for other emissions scenarios intensities do not increase
at these Great Lakes climate stations for the rare 100-year intensities. See below:

For a RCP2.6 scenario, the 100-year intensities in the table (again on the bottom left for the stationary model), decrease by 3 percent or are unchanged. With those decreases the return period of today's design intensities become longer, meaning today's intensities are less frequent. That means reduced risks for extreme rainfall compared to today.

The RCP4.5 scenario projected 100-year intensities are essentially unchanged in Hamilton and up slightly in London: 



So what are future rainfall intensities in Southern Ontario? That depends on the emissions scenario you select.

Recently the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium questioned if RCP8.5 should be considered as 'business as usual', that is, is it the most likely future scenario? See a detailed discussion in their Science Brief: https://www.pacificclimate.org/sites/default/files/publications/Science_Brief_39-June_2021-final.pdf, an excerpt which is below.


The Science Brief concludes that:

"Given that RCP8.5 is not the most "likely" outcome of emissions following business-as-usual or stated policy intensions, its reasonable to refer to it as a high emissions scenario instead of business-as-usual."

A previous post also noted that others have also questioned the validity of RCP8.5:


ii) Roger Pielke Jr. and Justin Ritchie as reported in Issues in Science and Technology (https://issues.org/climate-change-scenarios-lost-touch-reality-pielke-ritchie/). 

Therefore, the paper's projections for future intensities under RCP8.5 could be considered in stress tests of infrastructure or hydrologic systems. Such tests can identify low-regret design modifications that can be incorporated initially, or to identify future adaptive management if modifications today would be too costly and yield uncertain and limited benefits (i.e., based on the limited likelihood of such severe intensities occurring with less likely scenarios). Assessment of most-likely conditions should consider projected future intensities based on emissions under stated policy intentions, such as presented in the paper's supplemental material (e.g., RCP4.6).

Both the US Federal Highways Administration (FHWA) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) have developed risk-based approaches to designing infrastructure for future climate conditions. 

The Canadian government describes a method for projecting future rainfall intensities based on temperature-scaling, considering RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (see previous post  https://www.cityfloodmap.com/2021/12/adjusting-idf-curves-to-account-for.html). The approach notes one should:
  • Apply risk-based decision-making to choose the future extreme rainfall value that is most appropriate for asset risk thresholds.  For example, if rainfall consequences to infrastructure are severe, consider applying upper end of projected future RCP 8.5 1-hour 1-in-100-year rainfall intensities to infrastructure design.
A robust risk-based approach could also consider other scenarios such as RCP2.6 as well.

It is noted that the ASCE identifies levels of analysis in its Manual of Practice 140 entitled Climate-Resilient Infrastructure: Adaptive Design and Risk Management. In Chapter 7 Adaptive Design and Risk Management the manual provides recommended levels of climate analysis based design life and risk category. The following table excerpt shows the risk categories for buildings and other structure:



These table excerpts show the levels of analysis based on risk category and design life (top table), and the climate analysis characteristics.

So for buildings and structure with design life up to 75 years, where the risk category is low (Risk Category I, meaning low risk to human life), Level I climate analysis using "extremes based on historical observations is appropriate". For a longer design life beyond 75 years, the Risk Category I buildings and structures (low risk) should also include climate projections per climate analysis Level II. In my opinion, a deterministic future projection could be considered for such analysis based on a likely scenario (e.g., RCP 4.5).

Where there is a 'substantial risk to human life' or hazardous or toxic materials involved under Risk Category III, Level III analysis is recommended by ASCE for moderate design life (30-75 years). Such analysis would account for uncertainty as well, for example, and could consider confidence bands reflecting uncertainty on a future climate projection (e.g., bands surrounding RCP 4.5 projections).

For the highest Risk Category IV that applies to essential buildings and structures that are deemed 'essential facilities' and whose failure could pose 'a substantial hazard to the community', or that involve hazardous/toxic materials, more extensive climate analysis is required (i.e., Level IV). ASCE recommends "rigorous analysis of risk" for moderate design life and longer. Such an analysis could consider a range of scenarios, e.g., from RCP 2.6 to RCP 8.5, and the consequences of exposure to flood hazards. The likelihood of each scenario would have to be estimated to support rigorous risk-based analysis.

18 comments:

  1. My Herpes Virus started in my early twenties. I noticed a few days after breaking up with my Ex, Who was never faithful, I always had some blisters around my Genital area and some Cold sores on my lips. It was mild at first but began to worsen as I got older. By the time I was in my mid-twenties, I was taking acyclovir and valtrex every night before I went to bed. The pain was unbearable but nothing I tried seemed to make it go away. I was a little stubborn but eventually I went on the internet to do research on how I could possibly get rid of this virus on Dr. Mecoya Blog, Where i came Across a herbal doctor who has helped so many people of HSV with natural Medicine. I reached out to him ASAP and we spoke and I let him know my problem, which he promised to help deal with. Dr Razor told me that I had Contracted Type 1&2 of Herpes Simplex Virus. He told me it was treatable with Natural Medicine. A Few days after I had spoken with Dr Razor, He sent me a product or herbal medicine and gave me instructions on How to Go about it . Much to my amazement the Herbal Medicine actually got rid of my HSV 1/2. Not all Herbal Doctors Online are Scammers, Some are genuine like DR RAZOR . Contact him on his clinic Email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com
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    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Goodnews to everyone out there with different health challenges as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr Osato, a herbal practitioner who cures me from HSV2, i have suffered from this virus for the past 5 years. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr Osato sent to me to drink for two weeks and after the completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I tested Negative and my doctor confirmed with me that I was completely free from HSV2. All thanks to God for leading me to Dr Osato who was able to cure me completely from this horrible virus, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr Osato because I got to know him through Martha Jecorick post who he cured from HSV1&2 . I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and viruses. Don’t die in ignorance or silence thinking that there is no cure for HSV1&2 or HIV and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr Osato and get the cure from him. Dr Osato email is osatoherbalcure@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2347051705853 and His website is https://osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com . He cure all forms of diseases/virus {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} CANCER or all kind {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA {9} HSV1&2. Be kind enough to share as you read for others to know and get cured.

      Delete
    2. Does anyone still doubt natural herbs? I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. Natural herbs can cure all kinds of illnesses including herpes, diabetes, asthma, HIV, hepatitis, HPV, cancer, Vaginal infection, hsv1&2 etc. I've seen it with my own eyes. I was cured from Herpes and HPV and my friend got cured from herpes too. We all got cured by Dr. Osato herbal medicine. He uses natural herbs to cure different kinds of diseases. Even Dr. Sebi proved to the world that natural herbs can cure all illnesses and he cured countless people using herbs. I know it is hard to believe but I am a living testimony. I was diagnosed with Herpes and HPV in 2019 and I believe there is a cure even when the doctors said there is no cure yet. I strongly believe in herbs and i came across a comment on a blog written by Cresia Sutherland saying she was cure from HERPES by Dr Osato and i quickly contact Dr Osato on the email that was provided on the comment and order one for myself and he sent it to me through UPS and gave me instructions on how to use it and after i finish taken it i went for checkup and the result shows am HERPES and HPV NEGATIVE. I waited for 3months to confirm my result before writing this testimony and every month I would go and retest and all my results were NEGATIVE. My doctor said that the virus is completely gone from my body. There is no harm in trying herbs, it works perfectly and it has no side effects. You can contact Dr Osato by email to get yours.. His email is osatoherbalcure@gmail.com or Whatsapp him on +2347051705853. His website is osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com. I will continue to publish this in every blog so people can know that there is a cure for HERPES, HPV and other diseases. Stop living in anguish and let us eradicate this virus out of this world. Dr Osato is the man with the right herbal medicine for your illness.

      Delete
  2. It's hard to find a genuine Herbalist These days , because there are so many Of them flaunting and parading themselves to be Herbal Practitioners. This made me Succumb to the fact that I will never be cured of Herpes Virus 2 , which I have been battling since August 16 2021. I became a loner, Afraid of dying as well. Earlier this Year 2022 i came to find out about numerous testimonies Recommending a Certain Herbalist , Who goes by the name of MOMOH. I ignored them because I never believed in Them. I finally decided to reach out to him when a distant Nephew of mine, Whom i never told or knew i had herpes Virus 2, Got cured From Epilepsy And Sickle cell, I thought at once he might be of help . So I contacted him and I can tell you today that I have been very proud of myself for making the move to contact him, I finally got cured of herpes virus 2 with the Herbal medicine DR Momoh Sent to me. After years of Suffering from this virus, I am finally permanently cured. God bless You so Much sir . Contact him on his Email : dr.momoh9@gmail.com . You can Write him on Whatsapp/Call him Directly on +2347083724098

    ReplyDelete
  3. I am amazed by Dr Maggi's remedy. I Have had herpes for over 6 years with frequent outbreaks. Sometimes I average 2-3 times per month. Before one breakout could end, the next would begin. Nothing has helped me. I came online in search for a possible way to see how I can fight this virus so I found Dr Maggi here online after seeing a lot of testimonies of how he cured herpes and other diseases with natural herbs so I decided to give it a try I only took his remedy for two weeks and I was completely cured. I recommend Dr Maggi remedy to anyone suffering from herpes that wants to be completely cured too. Email: drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com WhatsApp +19179796387

    ReplyDelete
  4. Greetings to the general public,i want to inform the public how i was cured of HERPES Simplex Virus by a Dr. Williams i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about Dr. William how he cured them. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my HERPES result came out negative. Dr. Williams God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem.Whatapps Number: +2347040461868. Email: drwilliamscure@gmail.com
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    ReplyDelete
  5. Goodnews to everyone out there with different health challenges as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr Osato, a herbal practitioner who cures me from HSV2, i have suffered from this virus for the past 5 years. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr Osato sent to me to drink for two weeks and after the completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I tested Negative and my doctor confirmed with me that I was completely free from HSV2. All thanks to God for leading me to Dr Osato who was able to cure me completely from this horrible virus, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr Osato because I got to know him through Martha Jecorick post who he cured from HSV1&2 . I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and viruses. Don’t die in ignorance or silence thinking that there is no cure for HSV1&2 or HIV and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr Osato and get the cure from him. Dr Osato email is osatoherbalcure@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2347051705853 and His website is https://osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com . He cure all forms of diseases/virus {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} CANCER or all kind {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA {9} HSV1&2. Be kind enough to share as you read for others to know and get cured.

    ReplyDelete
  6. I tested positive for HSV-2 a few months ago. At first, yes, I was devastated thinking I have an incurable STD for life. After doing hours of research I quickly realized genital herpes is a filthy parasite that just likes to hide in your body. Yes, there’s no “medical cure” but that doesn’t mean your body can’t get rid of it. I literally flush it out of my system with the help of Dr. Azu natural herbal medication which I ordered after doing some research. And now I’m HSV-2 Negative, I never believed it until my doctor finally gave me the test results and behold I was HSV free. I’m so glad that I found you Dr. Azu. Thanks so much for your goodness I’m grateful. You can also get your help from him through his WhatsApp Contact +2347087313747 OR  Email:dr.azuherbalhome@gmail.com 

    ReplyDelete

  7. God bless Dr zack balo for the wonderful works he is doing in people's life. Both those that referred me to him and those that wants to contact him will find help in him. My name is Dorothy from US. I have been healed of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) by Dr zack balo. I didn't know herbs are that powerful until I read a testimony online about how Dr zack balo has been helping people with this sickness and curing HIV/AIDS,DIABETES,HEPATITIS B,IMPOTENCE,DIARRHEA. Dr zack balo email address: wiseindividualspell@gmail.com This man sent me the herbs and within 14 days, I was cured. I would direct anyone who needs help to get in touch with Dr zack balo herbal medicine and you will be helped immediately. l am sure of his help. Call/text him on +13212505016 or visit his website: http://drzackbalo.website2.me today to get your help.

    ReplyDelete
  8. I am really happy that i have been cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of  Dr MOMOH , i have been suffering from this disease for the past 3 years and 4 mouth without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 5days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony, stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases so you can Email him on dr.momoh9@gmail.com OR WHATSAPP him on +2347083724098  he also told me that he has cure for these diseases listed below . HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. .DIABETES . CANCER .HEPATITIS .HIV/AIDS Thank you for your time

    ReplyDelete
  9. HERBAL MEDICINE THAT CAN HELP YOU GET RID OF HERPES DISEASE/VIRUS..Now there is relief in the form of natural herbal healing. Herbal medication is the Quick Relief that works for most within two weeks to reduce outbreak and cure you completely from HSV1&2, Do you need herbal products to cure your Herpes Disease contact Dr. Kham to help and he will surely help you to cure your Herpes Virus in two weeks time ..I has suffered from Herpes Virus for 4 years that almost took my life, but one day I was searching for the possible cure on internet, so luckily I found so many Reviews about Dr. Kham on how he helps people in curing their deadly diseases, and I contacted Dr. Kham asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health. He prepared a powerful Herbal medicine for me and I received herbal medicine and after using it for 2 weeks my condition has greatly improved, All my symptoms/outbreak has stopped, So I went to my doc and was confirmed negative. I am Herpes Virus free! contact this Herbal doctor via his email dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or WhatsApp: +2348159922297 Kindly Visit his Website http://herbalistdockham.website2.me/ for more info.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Does anyone still doubt natural herbs? I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. Natural herbs can cure all kinds of illnesses including herpes, diabetes, asthma, HIV, hepatitis, HPV, cancer, Vaginal infection, hsv1&2 etc. I've seen it with my own eyes. I was cured from Herpes and HPV and my friend got cured from herpes too. We all got cured by Dr. Osato herbal medicine. He uses natural herbs to cure different kinds of diseases. Even Dr. Sebi proved to the world that natural herbs can cure all illnesses and he cured countless people using herbs. I know it is hard to believe but I am a living testimony. I was diagnosed with Herpes and HPV in 2019 and I believe there is a cure even when the doctors said there is no cure yet. I strongly believe in herbs and i came across a comment on a blog written by Cresia Sutherland saying she was cure from HERPES by Dr Osato and i quickly contact Dr Osato on the email that was provided on the comment and order one for myself and he sent it to me through UPS and gave me instructions on how to use it and after i finish taken it i went for checkup and the result shows am HERPES and HPV NEGATIVE. I waited for 3months to confirm my result before writing this testimony and every month I would go and retest and all my results were NEGATIVE. My doctor said that the virus is completely gone from my body. There is no harm in trying herbs, it works perfectly and it has no side effects. You can contact Dr Osato by email to get yours.. His email is osatoherbalcure@gmail.com or Whatsapp him on +2347051705853. His website is osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com. I will continue to publish this in every blog so people can know that there is a cure for HERPES, HPV and other diseases. Stop living in anguish and let us eradicate this virus out of this world. Dr Osato is the man with the right herbal medicine for your illness.

    ReplyDelete

  11. God bless Dr zack balo for the wonderful works he is doing in people's life. Both those that referred me to him and those that wants to contact him will find help in him. My name is Dorothy from US. I have been healed of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) by Dr zack balo. I didn't know herbs are that powerful until I read a testimony online about how Dr zack balo has been helping people with this sickness and curing HIV/AIDS,DIABETES,HEPATITIS B,IMPOTENCE,DIARRHEA. Dr zack balo email address: wiseindividualspell@gmail.com This man sent me the herbs and within 14 days, I was cured. I would direct anyone who needs help to get in touch with Dr zack balo herbal medicine and you will be helped immediately. l am sure of his help. Call/text him on +13212505016 or visit his website: http://drzackbalo.website2.me today to get your help.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Herpes cure Testimony
    My name is Patricia And I live in Nashville, Tennessee USA, I am here today to appreciate the good work of Dr Ahmed, for helping me curing my Herpes virus. I was diagnosed with Genital Herpes for the past 12 months and I have been searching for a cure. I read a testimony on this platform of a lady who was cured from Diabetes with doctor Ahmed Usman Herbal medicine including the doctor's official email address. I contacted the doctor through his email, after much discussion and a few questions he prepared Herbal medicine and asked for my address. I received the Herbal medicine 3 days later and with his prescription I drank the Herbal medicine for 21 days. After concluding the herbal medicine I went for a test and my IgG result was confirmed Negative with no trace of the virus on my blood. Contact doctor Ahmed to get cured. Contact him on ­čô×WhatsApp +1(214)302-7366
    ­čôžEmail: drahmedusman5104@gmail.com. He has Herbal cure for Diabetes, Hepatitis, Heart diseases. Hypertension, Strokes and Liver disease, Arthritis, Fibroid, Cancer, Asthma, Leukemia, Epilepsy, Menopause diseases.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Herpes cure Testimony
    My name is Patricia And I live in Nashville, Tennessee USA, I am here today to appreciate the good work of Dr Ahmed, for helping me curing my Herpes virus. I was diagnosed with Genital Herpes for the past 12 months and I have been searching for a cure. I read a testimony on this platform of a lady who was cured from Diabetes with doctor Ahmed Usman Herbal medicine including the doctor's official email address. I contacted the doctor through his email, after much discussion and a few questions he prepared Herbal medicine and asked for my address. I received the Herbal medicine 3 days later and with his prescription I drank the Herbal medicine for 21 days. After concluding the herbal medicine I went for a test and my IgG result was confirmed Negative with no trace of the virus on my blood. Contact doctor Ahmed to get cured. Contact him on ­čô×WhatsApp +1(214)302-7366
    ­čôžEmail: drahmedusman5104@gmail.com. He has Herbal cure for Diabetes, Hepatitis, Heart diseases. Hypertension, Strokes and Liver disease, Arthritis, Fibroid, Cancer, Asthma, Leukemia, Epilepsy, Menopause diseases.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Herpes cure Testimony
    My name is Patricia And I live in Nashville, Tennessee USA, I am here today to appreciate the good work of Dr Ahmed, for helping me curing my Herpes virus. I was diagnosed with Genital Herpes for the past 12 months and I have been searching for a cure. I read a testimony on this platform of a lady who was cured from Diabetes with doctor Ahmed Usman Herbal medicine including the doctor's official email address. I contacted the doctor through his email, after much discussion and a few questions he prepared Herbal medicine and asked for my address. I received the Herbal medicine 3 days later and with his prescription I drank the Herbal medicine for 21 days. After concluding the herbal medicine I went for a test and my IgG result was confirmed Negative with no trace of the virus on my blood. Contact doctor Ahmed to get cured. Contact him on ��WhatsApp +1(214)302-7366
    ��Email: drahmedusman5104@gmail.com. He has Herbal cure for Diabetes, Hepatitis, Heart diseases. Hypertension, Strokes and Liver disease, Arthritis, Fibroid, Cancer, Asthma, Leukemia, Epilepsy, Menopause diseases.

    ReplyDelete
  15. I am so happy, i never believe i will be this happy again in life, I was working as an air-hoster ( cabby crew ) for 3years but early this year, i loose my job because of this deadly disease. called Herpes virus (HSV), I never felt sick or have any symptom, till all workers were ask to bring their doctors report, that was how i got tested and i found out that am HSV positive that make me loose my job, because it was consider as an STD and is incurable disease, i was so depress was thinking of committing suicide, till i explain to a friend of mine, who always said to me a problem share is a problem solved, that was how she directed me to Dr Aba, that was how i contacted him and get the medication from this doctor and i got cured for real, I just went back to my work and they also carry out the test to be real sure and i was negative. Please contact this doctor if you are herpes positive or any STD diseases his email is: dr.abaherbalhome@gmail.com or you can call or whatsApp his mobile number on +2348107155060

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hello! I’m very excited to inform everyone that I’m completely cured from HSV1&2. I have used Oregano oil, Coconut oil, Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir, and some other products and it really help during my outbreaks but I totally got cured from HSV1&2 with a strong and active herbal medicine i ordered from a herbalist and it completely flush the virus out from my system and I tested Negative after 14 days of using the herbal medicine. I’m here to let y’all know that herpes1&2 virus has a complete cure, I got rid of mine using Dr Osato herbal medicine. Contact him via email: osatoherbalcure@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2347051705853 to get yours and be cured from HSV1&2, HPV, HIV, HERPES completely. His website is osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com

    ReplyDelete